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Burns are one of the most common causes for children to present to the accident and emergency departments across the UK. It is estimated that on average 110 children per day are seen in emergency departments with burn injuries, approximately 50 of those are due to hot drinks. The most common are in children around 1 to 5 years old, this is thought to be due to the natural inquisitive nature and the need to touch to learn.
CAUSE OF BURNS
The home has many dangers, some you will think of others may not be so obvious. Here is a list of some of the more common causes of burns and scalds. You probably won’t be surprised to see that hot drinks is at the top of the list.
SCALDS- The No. 1 culprit (from steam, hot bath water, tipped-over tea/coffee, hot foods, cooking etc.)
Light bulbs (yes the light is soooo beautiful)
Hot drinks cause most scalds to children under the age of five. A child’s skin is much more sensitive than an adult’s and a hot drink can still scald a child 15 minutes after being made.
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scalding injuries. Surprisingly over 500 children are admitted to burns units whilst a further 2000 will be treated in outpatients.
Prevention is better than cure. Moving hot drinks so they are out of reach, making sure straightners are turned off, not allowing young children in the kitchen, fire guards and electrical guards and finally suncream. Yes this sounds obvious but still it happens, it only takes a momentary lapse of concentrations for our little darlings to circumnavigate all of our safety procedures and injuries themselves . So what do we do if they do burn themselves.
You can apply the following first aid techniques to yourself or another person who has been burnt.
First aid for burns
Stop the burning process as soon as possible. This may mean removing the person from the area, dousing flames with water, or smothering flames with a blanket. Don’t put yourself at risk of getting burnt as well.
Remove any clothing or jewellery near the burnt area of skin, including babies’ nappies. However, don’t try to remove anything that’s stuck to the burnt skin as this could cause more damage.
Cool the burn with cool or lukewarm running water for 20 minutes, as soon as possible after the injury. Never use ice, iced water, or any creams or greasy substances such as butter.
Keep yourself or the person warm. Use a blanket or layers of clothing, but avoid putting them on the injured area. Keeping warm will prevent hypothermia, where a person’s body temperature drops below 35C (95F). This is a risk if you are cooling a large burnt area, particularly in young children and elderly people.
Cover the burn with cling film. Put the cling film in a layer over the burn, rather than wrapping it around a limb. A clean clear plastic bag can be used for burns on your hand.
Treat the pain from a burn with paracetamol or ibuprofen. Always check the manufacturer’s instructions when using over-the-counter medication. Children under 16 years of age should not be given aspirin.
Sit upright as much as possible if the face or eyes are burnt. Avoid lying down for as long as possible as this will help to reduce swelling.
When to go to hospital
Once you have taken these steps, you’ll need to decide whether further medical treatment is necessary. Go to a hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department for:
large or deep burns – bigger than the affected person’s hand
burns of any size that cause white or charred skin
burns on the face, hands, arms, feet, legs or genitals that cause blisters
all chemical and electrical burns
Also get medical help straight away if the person with the burn:
has other injuries that need treating
is going into shock – signs include cold, clammy skin, sweating, rapid, shallow breathing, and weakness or dizziness
is over the age of 60
is under the age of five
has a medical condition such as heart, lung or liver disease, or diabetes
has a weakened immune system (the body’s defence system) – for example, because of HIV or AIDS, or because they’re having chemotherapy for cancer
If someone has breathed in smoke or fumes, they should also seek medical attention. Some symptoms may be delayed, and can include:
a sore throat
singed nasal hair
Electrical burns may not look serious, but they can be very damaging. Someone who has an electrical burn should seek immediate medical attention at an A&E department.
If the person has been injured by a low-voltage source (up to 220-240 volts) such as a domestic electricity supply, safely switch off the power supply or remove the person from the electrical source using a material that doesn’t conduct electricity, such as a wooden stick or a wooden chair.
Don’t approach a person who is connected to a high-voltage source (1,000 volts or more).
Chemical burns can be very damaging and require immediate medical attention at an A&E department. If possible, find out what chemical caused the burn and tell the healthcare professionals at A&E.
If you’re helping someone else, put on appropriate protective clothing and then:
remove any contaminated clothing on the person
if the chemical is dry, brush it off their skin
use running water to remove any traces of the chemical from the burnt area
In cases of sunburn, follow the advice below:
If you notice any signs of sunburn, such as hot, red and painful skin, move into the shade or preferably inside.
Take a cool bath or shower to cool down the burnt area of skin.
Apply aftersun lotion to the affected area to moisturise, cool and soothe it. Don’t use greasy or oily products.
If you have any pain, paracetamol or ibuprofen should help relieve it. Always read the manufacturer’s instructions and do not give aspirin to children under the age of 16.
Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
Watch out for signs of heat exhaustion or heatstroke, where the temperature inside your body rises to 37-40C (98.6-104F) or above. Symptoms include dizziness, a rapid pulse or vomiting.
If a person with heat exhaustion is taken to a cool place quickly, given water to drink and has their clothing loosened, they should start to feel better within half an hour.
If they don’t, they could develop heatstroke. This is a medical emergency and you’ll need to call 999 for an ambulance.